China’s Data Security Law was published on June 10, 2021, and will be formally effective starting September 1, 2021.
This law can be treated as another pillar of China’s legal framework on information security and data (privacy) protection, besides the Cybersecurity Law (CSL) that was launched in 2017 and focused on network security and the Personal Information Protection Law (PIPL), which is at the second reading stage and expected to be published later this year.
It has been only two months since the second reading of the draft Data Security Law (in April of 2021), which indicates that Chinese legislative authorities are eager to publish it quickly to tackle emerging threats to data security.
In this article, we address the main changes in the published version of the Data Security Law as compared to its second draft. We also highlight the areas of concern for foreign companies running businesses in China.
We have highlighted the changes made to the final version and the major concerns of the law as below:
Here we provide few suggestions from the technical perspective on the methodology of compliance with the Data Security Law.
Data protection brings new challenges for companies as it is beyond the traditional information security scope, therefore, existing resources inside the company (normally, the IT team or information security team) might be incapable of fulfilling the responsibility of data protection.
The company needs to assign the resource and build up the data protection management team with a top-down structure, such as the “information security committee”, which involves legal, technical, and business departments on the top, followed by the professional team from the legal, privacy, and IT departments. For big companies, the information security team of each business unit needs to be involved as well.
The compliance of data security apparently needs both IT and legal teams working together for compliance work. The legal team can interpret the legal clause and identify the detailed requirements (on an abstract level) that should be fulfilled by the company, and better convert such legalese into a format that can be easily understood by the IT department.
On its part, the IT team needs to locate the suitable technical control measures and toolkits to perform the actual data protection. When a company intends to seek the professional expertise of an external party, the capability and integration of both technical and legal resources should be considered on priority.
Besides the direct requirement from the law and regulation from authorities, there are many requirements from other stakeholders that need to be considered as well, such as external clients, partner, or supplier.
For B2C businesses, the consumer’s personal information processing will be regulated by the Data Security Law. For B2B businesses, the business secrets and other business data is important data for protection as well.
Such assessments require the company to analyze their business model and identify all potential stakeholders, then further collect and identify their respective requirements on data protection.
All data protection control measures, either technical (such as encryption) or organizational (such as requesting the staff to follow specific data processing procedures), should be applied to the target – which is the data itself; therefore, the inventory of the data is one important and basic step in the whole data protection process.
Before talking about how to protect the data, few questions should be answered first: what data does the company have, where is the data saved, how is the data collected and processed, who are accessing the data and in which ways?
Data classification is another important step which classifies the data into different types based on its importance, purpose, source, and sensitivity; therefore, different levels of data protection control measures can be applied accordingly.
One clear data flow chart or data mapping which shows how the data is flowing inside the company and between the company and external parties will be very helpful to let the data protection team locate the key node/nodes that might need extra data protection measures. The company can consider using automatic tools to detect and identify the data type with auto-labeling, and further implement predefined control measures.
The management strategy or control measures that just focus on a single or multiple nodes / points is always not enough as there are so many different potential problems in each phase of the whole data life cycle.
Different control measures should be adopted to align with the characteristics of different phases of data life cycle, or different stages. We give one simple illustration here for easier understanding:
More and more companies are dealing with large amounts of data in their daily operations nowadays and it is unrealistic to enforce the security control in a manual way. Adoption and deployment of advanced security toolkits is critical for data protection.
For example, companies should use a DLP (Data Loss Prevention) tool to classify and label the data with a pre-defined policy to prevent their sensitive data getting leaked out of the organization.
For the data that is necessary to be shared with an external party, deploying the tool like AIP (Azure Information Protection) can provide continuous protection even when the data is outside of the organizations’ traditional security perimeter; implementing a Zero Trust-based security architecture can dramatically improve the overall data protection level. The company can consider utilizing Microsoft 365 productivity platform, which includes all features described in this section.
The end user is always the last defense line for any data security incident. As part of organizational control measures, the security awareness training plus the training about how to utilize company-equipped technical toolkits for data protection is one important step of the overall data protection process.
Some good platforms, such as KnowBe4, can be utilized to plan and develop the training program for all staff, detecting end users’ real response on stimulated phishing for further analysis and improvement.
Data protection is one long and endless journey, which requires continuous improvement. A suitable monitoring platform should be deployed to monitor and log the data activity, which should then send out the risk alert automatically to the data protection management team for manual intervention.
Internal review and external independent third-party audits should be done periodically and regularly to identify the potential weaknesses and the corrective actions that must be taken; the results should be further reviewed for the next round Plan-Do-Check-Action (PDCA).
China Briefing is written and produced by Dezan Shira & Associates. The practice assists foreign investors into China and has done so since 1992 through offices in Beijing, Tianjin, Dalian, Qingdao, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Ningbo, Suzhou, Guangzhou, Dongguan, Zhongshan, Shenzhen, and Hong Kong. Please contact the firm for assistance in China at email@example.com.
Dezan Shira & Associates has offices in Vietnam, Indonesia, Singapore, United States, Germany, Italy, India, and Russia, in addition to our trade research facilities along the Belt & Road Initiative. We also have partner firms assisting foreign investors in The Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, Bangladesh.
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