China Work Visa: Unified Work Permit

Posted by Reading Time: 6 minutes

By Dezan Shira & Associates
Editor: Weining Hu

In an effort to streamline the visa application process for foreigners, the State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs (SAFEA) has quickened reforms for foreigners to apply for China’s work visa.

Effective on April 1, 2017, the SAFEA rolled out a unified work permit system nationwide that began to process applications both ‘foreign experts’ and ordinary foreign nationals, referred to as R visas and Z visas respectively.

The new system uses a points-based, three-tiered classification system to evaluate which candidates qualify for the work permit.

Compared with the old system, the new one requires fewer supporting application materials, provides a more transparent evaluation process, and shortens turnaround time.

On paper, foreign applicants will benefit from this restructure of the foreign work permit system due to its simpler, clearer, and less time-consuming application process.

Two-in-one reform versus old system

A standard procedure for obtaining a foreigner’s work visa normally involves three critical steps: an application for an employment license, a work visa application at a Chinese embassy, and obtainment of an employment permit.

Under the old system, there were two government entities, the Human Resources and Social Security Bureau (HRSS) and the SAFEA, governing the foreign work visa application process.

The HRSS issued the Employment License and Alien Employment Permit to Z-visa applicants, while the SAFEA issued the Foreign Expert License and Foreign Expert Certificate to R-visa applicants.

However, starting from April 1, the SAFEA became solely responsible for processing all foreign work visa applications. In other words, both Z-visa and R-visa applicants need to submit their applications to only the SAFEA without confusion over where to apply.

In addition, the Employment License and Foreign Expert License have been integrated into a single Notification Letter of Foreigner’s Work Permit, and the Alien Employment Permit and the Foreign Expert Certificate unified into the Foreigner’s Work Permit ID card. Each Foreigner’s Work Permit card will have a unique ID number that does not change regardless of permit renewal or change of employer.

Online application

Under the new system, the employer and foreign applicant can complete the application and submit necessary supporting documents electronically.

An online management service system for foreign workers in China (Management Service System) established by the SAFEA will manage the online registration process. Application materials required for submission are reduced by almost half, with submissions like personal CVs and application letters no longer necessary. The following documents are required:

  • Application form for Foreigner’s Work Permit;
  • Verification of past employment;
  • Verification of education or a verification of professional qualification;
  • Criminal record certificate;
  • Physical examination record for foreigner or overseas Chinese;
  • Copy of the job contract or appointment letter;
  • Passport;
  • ID photo; and
  • Information of accompanying members.

Documents required by applicant’s employer:

  • Registration form;
  • Business license and organization code certificate;
  • ID information of the employer/agent who is responsible for the registration;
  • Industry license documents.

Tiered classification

The SAFEA has adopted a point based three-tiered classification system as a primary method to evaluate which candidates qualify for the new work permit.

The classification system divides candidates into three categories: A (above 85 points) for high level talent, B (85 – 60) for professional personnel, and C (less than 60) for non-technical or service workers hired on a temporary or seasonal basis.

The SAFEA assigns scores to each candidate based on his or her education background, salary level, age, time spent working in China, Chinese language proficiency, employment location, etc.


In addition to the points-based classification system, the SAFEA defines a set of special conditions when a candidate qualifies for ‘A’, ‘B’, or ‘C’ level.

The SAFEA explicitly listed all special conditions for each status’ level in the Classification Standard for Foreign Workers in China (Pilot). If a candidate meets any of those special conditions, the SAFEA will flag a corresponding level to this person without calculating the total score.

For example, A level can automatically be granted to international award recipients, Fortune Global 500 company senior managers or technicians, intellectual property holders of high profile companies, and post-doctoral degree holders under 40 years old. All A level candidates are eligible for service through a ‘green channel’, which offers a pre-entry visa, paperless verification, expedited approval, and other facilitation treatment.

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Validity of an Employment Permit

While the maximum validity of a Foreigner’s Employment Permit is five years, in practice five-year permits are rarely granted. First-time applicants are more likely to receive a one-year permit and then renewals for a multi-year work permit.

Although the Beijing Labor Bureau has started to grant more multi-year Employment Permits to first-time applicants, other first-tier cities, including Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen, grant them far less frequently.

Consider regional variations

As the Management Service System and relative regulating measures are still under testing, regulatory changes could occur in the near future to optimize the new system.

Additionally, new incentives may be implemented first in China’s Free Trade Zones (FTZs) and later integrated into the national model.

In January this year, a new policy which lowers the application thresholds for foreign master’s graduates from Chinese and “well known” overseas universities is an extension of a scheme piloted in the Shanghai FTZ.

It is therefore recommended that work visa applicants stay up-to-date with both the national scheme and regional policies, as local bureaus have administrative leverage when implementing the national model.

A first hand source who classified themselves as a B level candidate and made an application under the new system has indicated that preparation of necessary documents for application can be an extremely taxing and time consuming task if education and work experience was gathered internationally.

Thus, sufficient preparation and company support is essential to the application process. Companies looking to hire foreign staff should not hesitate to reach out for professional HR guidance to ensure their employees successfully receive China work visas.


China Briefing is published by Asia Briefing, a subsidiary of Dezan Shira & Associates. We produce material for foreign investors throughout Asia, including ASEAN, India, Indonesia, Russia, the Silk Road, and Vietnam. For editorial matters please contact us here, and for a complimentary subscription to our products, please click here.

Dezan Shira & Associates is a full service practice in China, providing business intelligence, due diligence, legal, tax, IT, HR, payroll, and advisory services throughout the China and Asian region. For assistance with China business issues or investments into China, please contact us at or visit us at

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39 thoughts on “China Work Visa: Unified Work Permit

    Jonathon Davis says:

    Hi! Much appreciate your article.
    Contrary to what you’ve written here, i’m finding the new process much more difficult than is has been in the past 8 years that i’ve lived here. I’m now going through the process with my new company to get a work visa and i’m being requested to supply (as you mentioned above), 1. A criminal background check and 2. A certificate from the China embassy in my home country regarding my educational credentials. I have been unable to glean any info from the China embassy in the United States about how, when and whom can get these documents for me. Do you have any insight? Your help would be much appreciated. Regards, Jonathon

    Jake Liddle says:

    Hi Jonathon,

    thanks for your inquiry. Please contact our service team at for more information.


    Alek says:

    Contrary to what the title of the article says, it’s definitely much more difficult now since the 1st of April to get the work permit in Suzhou (Jiangsu). As now even the 2nd tier cities are not so flexible as before when it comes to work experience after graduation and academic background. It is a big headache now for the employers and especially for employees who are not of managerial level.

    David Robert Whittall says:

    I have given 10 months a year, for last 5 years, as a Native English Teacher, working in China!

    I have a 120 Hours TEFL Diploma, a C&G of London Institute, Full ‘Tech’ Certificate in Telecommunications, and a BSC in ‘Engineering Technology’.
    Additionally I obtained Certificates in ‘English for Hotels & Resorts’, ‘English for IT’, ‘English for Accounting’, and ‘Medical English’, (for helping Students obtain such with on-line Class, so they can improve their listening, speaking and Vocabulary in these specialized areas.

    With the Introduction of this New Unified Work Permit for Foreigners, I was told that in addition to needing more than 60 Points for Category ‘B’, there is also an Age Restriction and Foreign Teachers now need to be ‘Under Age 60’. Your Report made no mention of this and yet that is the reason HNU, said they could not give me a new Contract, for next academic year.

    China Briefing says:

    Hello David,

    You are correct that the standard age limit for foreign teachers is 60. However, this also depends on the location and the exact type of visa sought. Please consult our HR service team at for more information.

    Otto says:

    Work permit..
    I have a qianhai WFOE where I’m the only investor and shareholder, how to get a work permit and considering I’m 70 years old?

    China Briefing says:

    Hi Otto,
    Thank you for your inquiry. Please contact our HR specialists for advisory on visa and work permit matters:

    Chuck says:

    Hi, I’ve just been approved for work permit category B in Shanghai after a grueling and stressful 6 weeks in Shanghai, and more then 30k Yuan spent on hotels, agents, transports and getting documents legalized overseas, (just my university degree cost me 7k Yuan to notarize and 20 days wait).
    You get recalled to SAFEA office for any mistake in any document to re-upload, give a copy and show the corrected original document to the officer, and every upload would take another 5 working days to get an answer which is always more documents to upload or more corrections.
    I found the new visa system elitist and very uncool, and I’ve been long enough in China to know that the Chinese are better than that, I wonder who talked them into it, but I believe it’s a mistake and many good and hard working foreigners in China are just giving up.
    If you fall into a C category, you are as good as a nobody, regardless of you being paying tax for the past 10 years, or being a language teacher working with orphans in Yunan or Sichuan for almost nothing
    If you want the elite A category, you need to have obtained something like a Nobel price or cured cancer, or be a super human athlete
    if you want a green card, your annual salary should be no less then 600k a year
    What is shocking about all this no-money-no-talk system is that no body spoke English at SAFEA, no agent or lawyer would take my case, I contaced 8 biggest HR agencies and lawyers in Shanghai, after they saw my file they never replied, and the ones who did, had conflicting answers.
    so in a month time I had to learn Chinese and how to navigate SAFEA Chinese website (no English FYI). on top of that, the attitude of the staff and the HR agents shoving at the counters was no class A, I wouldn’t give it D, just no manners and plain rude.
    my visa was already due and the PSB refused to give me extension, so now that I left China I finally got my work permit approved, to tell you the truth I’m so disappointed that I regret I didn’t leave before I started my application.
    I hope that the Shanghai government should think and trade carefully and maturely before implementing such policies that serve a very select few and hurt so many people like myself

    Naresh says:

    Hi, according to new work permit classification the website is showing that if an employee qualification is Bachelor’s degree or above and after graduation two years relevant job experience he belongs to B category. My employer applied my work permit on b category and SAFEA gave me C category work permit. Is there any restrictions or problems for next year extension if I get C category work permit?

    China Briefing says:

    Hi Naresh,

    Two years of relevant work experience and a bachelor’s degree does not in itself guarantee a B category work permit. While it remains to be seen how it will be enforced in practice, C category workers may have more difficulty renewing their work permits due to local quotas on the amount of permissible C category workers.

    For more information on A, B, and C categories, please consult this article:
    Further, our work permit tier calculator can help you count your points and determine your tier based on your qualifications:

    Please note that the calculator is only meant to give you a guideline to which tier you may fall in, and local authorities may assign you to a different level.

    Indira says:

    Hello and thank you for this article! Do I understand correctly that with the new system I don’t need to leave country and come back if I change a city of leaving? I have B category working permit from Chongqing and plan to move to Shanghai. Old system required to leave china and apply for entry visa in their embassy abroad and then come back and apply for residence permit in case of changing city/province of work. Thank you in advance

    China Briefing says:

    Hello Indira,

    Work permits can be transferred between employers without having to leave the country. However, both the old and the new employers need to follow certain procedures to transfer the permit, which can take several weeks.

    For more information, please contact our HR specialists:

    Bharath says:

    Hello. If anyone can help please let me know. So I’m changing a company and a city, moving to Shanghai. Haven’t moved yet but want to be ready and not waste time later. New HR tells me that though I have a new employment card category B I still have to cancel it in my current city and bring cancellation paper to shanghai and apply for completely new employment card with providing all documents needed for a new employment card which includes notary translation of education certificate and no criminal records paper processed in my country in Chinese embassy. If it wasn’t problematic I would make it just in case but I’m in China and those things take a lot of time and money. From what I have read on Chinese websites holders of new employment card already submitted their education certificates online and if they move to other city but don’t change profession then they don’t need to submit it again. 1. So the question is do you know if I still need to provide notary education certificate and no criminal record paper from Chinese embassy in my country or not? 2. Well another question was if leaving a country with new employment card is needed but seems like not as written above. But new and old employer have to exchange a lot of paperwork? I thought only cancellation paper is need and a stamped paper from previous employer about me leaving company. Something else?
    Sorry for writing a lot
    Thank you

    Christopher Ptaszynski-Neophytou says:


    Thank you for the article. It has probably been the clearest and most reliable source of information I’ve come across. I’m 22 years old, just graduated from University of York in 2017. I currently work in Shenzhen as a full time teacher, but I want to work in a different sector. I am a Category C worker.

    Is it essential to have 2 years of relevant work experience after graduation or can you just do a masters? Or can you get a job without either?


    China Briefing says:

    Hello Christopher,

    Thank you for taking the time to read our article. Generally speaking, two years of relevant work experience after graduation is required to receive a work permit. However, there are special visa rules for some professions, such as teachers. The two year requirement can also be waived if one holds a master’s degree from some leading Chinese and international universities, although in practice this may depend on the region. For more information on master degree’s a work permits, please refer to this article:

    Kourtney says:

    Hello all,

    I have an urgent enquiry regarding Notification Letter of Foreigner’s Work Permit (a step prior to Z-work visa). I am in overseas, not in China yet.
    My employer has helped me apply for the notification letter online and I have passed the initial assessment. Now I have been asked to provide original legalised copies of all my supporting documents to SAFEA for futher assessment. I wonder is it true that I must post the documents to China at this stage? Can I provide the original copies only after I enter China with Z-work visa?
    Thank you!

    China Briefing says:

    Hi Kourtney,

    Generally, the original copies must be provided to obtain the Z-visa, and only Tier A talents are exempt from submitting paper documents at this stage. You may want to double check with your company’s HR team, who should be well acquainted with the local application procedures, and the closest Chinese consulate, who may offer additional services for visa applications. For more information, please contact our HR specialists:

    Jon says:

    I spent all my money moving to Shanghai right at the time of the new laws. The kindergarten really liked me and so did the kids – yet I was declined due to ONE alcohol in public charge back in 2012 ( a sporting win where I carried an open beer to a friends house after the game ) and hey declined me ! I was accepted in Japan with the same record, please we are not robots and perfect. I’ve always been a good teacher and this is not a “fair go” as we say in Australia. If Japan could accept me and China could not you have to ask yourself if you are to strict now ?

    Mickael Viudez says:

    I may very well change company next year and my question is simple, will the government ask me for a certified apostille for my bachelor degree as they did when I first applied or not? If yes, that would mean I’d have to get the certifying process going ASAP to get that apostille from the Chinese embassy back home.

    Yours sincerely,

    Kim says:

    Hi, I was approved for work permit category B. But my notification letter expired few days ago, the Chinese embassy in Hanoi Vietnam couldn’t process my application because of the APEC meeting, their computers were down, so I sent almost 3 months going back and forth and I didn’t realize that the notification letter is valid for 3 months only.
    Is there a way I could extend/renew my work permit notification letter?

    Mark says:

    Can anybody explain the process of applying directly for a Work Permit, skipping the Z-VISA process as outlined here? or

    I am B class, currently in China (past 6 months) on L-VISA, UK issued with 90 day entry, work is in Shanghai. New HR seem unable/unwilling to investigate this. I think you just apply for Notice and WP at the same time, but if there’s any method I can pass along it’d be greatly appreciated. Trying to get this sorted ASAP and not waiting 3 months (Plus costs) of traditional route.

    China Briefing says:

    Hi Mark,

    Foreigners cannot be employed and working in China on an L-Visa. To get a work permit, you must first receive the Notice, and subsequently the Z-Visa. Once you receive the Z-Visa, you can apply for the work permit. For more information, please contact our HR specialists:

    J says:

    So what is the difference between Z and R visas? Now, many people start with a 3 month residence permit that they will give you in places like Beijing when your application is far enough along.

    However, usually they are still working on the work permit and other things at that point. Does anyone know what happens after this?

    Most all of us are probably B or C category. That’s where I get confused. So are we Z or R? What do we do after that initial 3 month visa? Any info you have would be great. Thanks.

    China Briefing says:


    R visas are for highly qualified talents – essentially Tier A talents. The standards to apply for an R visa are very high. Most foreign workers in China, who fall under Tier B or Tier C, will enter on a Z visas.

    Once you have received the Z visa, you can apply for the work permit and the residence permit, which will allow you to stay in China for a longer period of time and work legally.

    For more information on differences between visas, please refer to this article:

    amine says:

    First of all, i think the work permit system needs a lot of improvments. For example, new graduated students; no matter their skills or talents they wont obtain a B category work permit. in general, people who are in the B category work permit are the ones who have already worked for so many years in their countries, so to be honest i am not sure that this category of people would leave their jobs and go to work in China. Another important thing is the contradictions in some parameters such as the 15 points of working in china for over than 9 months.I guess, working in China does not mean that you should obtain more points than someone who has possiblly worked in better companies somewhere else. With these rules, i think China is not as attractive as what is expected by talented or good workers.

    Feroz Basheer says:


    If i have A category permit , am i allowed to bring a maid from my home country and if yes what are the procedures to apply the visa for her .

    Ali says:

    I am currently working as a software engineer in China with z visa (B Category), I want to continue my career in teaching side, I have almost 2 years of teaching experience in my home country, and more than 4 years of software development experience (inlcuding 8 months in china). Is there any requirement for work permit to have certification to teach computer science courses or my previous teaching/professional experience is enough? I forgot to mention I have done Masters in software engineering from china.

    China Briefing says:


    A Tier talents are permitted to hire foreign domestic workers in some areas, such as Shanghai:

    Please contact our HR specialists for advisory on your situation:

    China Briefing says:

    Hello Ali,

    Some employers in China might require additional teaching certificates in addition to your experience. We recommend that you liaise with your prospective employer and the local labor bureau to confirm your eligibility.

    For more information, please contact our HR specialists:

    jimmy says:

    i got approved on safea online i’ve submitted all my documents scan, now i need go to the office and give them the original, can they at the PSB refuse my documents ?
    the documents will looks exactly the same as the one i’ve subbmited online.

    Thank you

    China Briefing says:

    Hello Jimmy,

    After the initial approval by SAFEA, it is still possible that the final application will be rejected. However, the PSB should not be involved at this stage of the application process. For more information, please contact our HR specialists:

    Phindile says:

    I would like to know how can i cancel my previous work permit? My previous employer does not want to cancel me on their system.

    Kind regards

    China Briefing says:

    Hello Phindile,

    Normally, the employer should cancel the work permit upon termination of your working relationship. In this case, one option is to negotiate with your employer before pursuing legal avenues, as improper treatment of foreign employees may affect the employer’s credit score. Alternatively, you can wait until the work permit expires (it will be canceled automatically in that case). If these options are not suitable or possible, you can also initiate labor arbitration against your employer.

    For advisory on your situation, please contact our HR experts here:

    Yousag says:

    I want renewal my work
    Permet card,online what side i w.ll using

    Ariana says:

    Is there anyway to get documents legalized in China? For example, I require getting my Qualifications and Police Check legalized as part of my work permit application. Can I get these notorised by my countries consulate (in China) and then have them legalized in China (somehow)?

    ChinAwork says:

    I don’t have have a two year of teaching experience, however I was reading on a few websites that TESOL Certificate that is apostilled and legalized by chinese embassy can serve as a substitute for the teaching experience. And also, if a person’s degree is in Education than there is no need for teaching experience. But you are not mentioning these in your articles. Can you, please, comment on it? Thank you

    China Briefing says:


    The online application can be accessed at the local government’s SAFEA website. This is normally handled by your employer.

    For more information, please contact our HR specialists:

    China Briefing says:


    Many consulates and embassies offer legalization services. We recommend you contact your country’s embassy/consulate for information on the services they offer.

    China Briefing says:


    Yes, teachers that hold a certification such as TESOL are usually not required to have at least two years of work experience to acquire a visa for teaching-related jobs.

    For more information, please contact our HR specialists here:

Comments are closed.