By Eunice Ku
Oct. 25 – When a foreign company decides to try and sell to the Chinese market, there are several options – working through an agency or distributor, or registering a representative office (RO). Whereas an agent or distributor may have limited loyalty or little interest in end-user satisfaction, an RO is an effective way for foreign investors to get a feel for the Chinese market while demonstrating commitment to the market. It is the easiest type of foreign investment structure to set up and, unlike the wholly foreign-owned enterprise, has no registered capital requirements.
The defining characteristic of an RO is its limited business scope – an RO is generally forbidden from engaging in any profit-seeking activities, and can only legally engage in:
- Market research, display and publicity activities that relate to company product or services; and
- Contact activities that relate to company product sales or service provision and domestic procurement and investment.
While an RO is relatively easy to establish and maintain, they are fairly limited in terms of operational scope since they cannot actually issue invoices (i.e., fapiao, the basis for obtaining tax deductions in China) or sign contracts.
An RO has no legal personality, meaning it does not possess the capacity for civil rights and conduct, cannot independently assume civil liability, and is limited in its hiring ability. Chinese staff working for an RO, although not limited in number, must be employed through a human resources agency that will sign a contract with the RO on the one hand and with the Chinese staff on the other in order to ensure social security and housing fund contributions are paid on a regular basis. No more than four foreign employees can be hired per RO. Foreign staff working for ROs should have an employment relationship with the parent company abroad, and any disputes should be settled under the laws of that country.
From 2010 on, companies that intend to register a RO must be at least two years old. According to the revised “Administrative Regulation on the Registration of Permanent Representative Organizations of Foreign Enterprises” which came into effect in July, 2013, the registration certificate for an RO is valid as long as its foreign parent company legally exists.
ROs are required to submit an annual report between March 1 and June 30 every year providing information on the legal status and standing information of the foreign enterprise, ongoing business activities of the RO, and payment balance audited by their accounting agencies. The registration authorities will issue fines if the RO fails to provide such reports on time or if it provides false information.
ROs are usually taxed on gross expenses with the overall tax burden around 11.75 percent of total monthly expenses; however, these rates may be increased by the relevant tax bureau according to the industry. If the chief representative is a foreign national, whether they stay in China or not, they shall be subject to individual tax based on the income derived from the RO.
Portions of this article came from the October 2013 issue of China Briefing Magazine, titled “Selling to China.” In this issue of China Briefing Magazine, we demystify some complexities of conducting business in China by introducing the main certification requirements for importing goods into the country; the basics of setting up a representative office; as well as the structure and culture of State-owned enterprise in China. Finally, we also summarize some of the export incentives available in several key Western countries.
Dezan Shira & Associates is a specialist foreign direct investment practice, providing corporate establishment, business advisory, tax advisory and compliance, accounting, payroll, due diligence and financial review services to multinationals investing in emerging Asia. Since its establishment in 1992, the firm has grown into one of Asia’s most versatile full-service consultancies with operational offices across China, Hong Kong, India, Singapore and Vietnam as well as liaison offices in Italy and the United States.
You can stay up to date with the latest business and investment trends across Asia by subscribing to Asia Briefing’s complimentary update service featuring news, commentary, guides, and multimedia resources.
Trading With China
This issue of China Briefing Magazine focuses on the minutiae of trading with China – regardless of whether your business has a presence in the country or not. Of special interest to the global small and medium-sized enterprises, this issue explains in detail the myriad regulations concerning trading with the most populous nation on Earth – plus the inevitable tax, customs and administrative matters that go with this.
E-Commerce in China
In this issue of China Briefing Magazine, we cover the current laws pertinent to the e-commerce industry in China, as well as introduce the steps involved in setting up an online shop in the country in order to help provide foreign investors with an overview of the e-commerce landscape in China.
Sourcing From China
In this issue of China Briefing Magazine, we outline the various sourcing models available for foreign investors and discuss how to decide which structure best suits the sourcing needs of your business. Perhaps the most important factors to consider when choosing a sourcing structure are your staffing requirements, your need for operational flexibility, and which option offers the greatest cost efficiencies. We compare how each of these factors match up with the available sourcing platforms in order to help foreign businesses find the best option for their specific sourcing needs.